William JamesHistory. The origins of functionalism are traced back to William James, the renowned American psychologist of the late 19th century. James was heavily influenced by Darwin's theory of evolution, and was critical of the structural approach to psychology that had dominated the field since its inception.
Wallace and Wolf trace the development of structural functionalism to Comte, Herbert Spencer, and Durkheim. The functional approach was developed from the 1930s through the 1960s in the United States. Parsons studied Weber and Durkheim, and translated some of these into English.
Wundt's theory was developed and promoted by his one-time student, Edward Titchener (1898), who described his system as Structuralism, or the analysis of the basic elements that constitute the mind.
Structuralism was founded by Wilhelm Wundt, who used controlled methods, such as introspection, to break down consciousness to its basic elements without sacrificing any of the properties of the whole. Structuralism was further developed by Wundt's student, Edward B. Titchener.
In 1890, William James attempted to explain how consciousness functions with his book The Principles of Psychology. Because James's theories attempted to explain the function of consciousness rather than the structure, his approach was appropriately named functionalism.
Structuralism in Europe developed in the early 20th century, mainly in France and the Russian Empire, in the structural linguistics of Ferdinand de Saussure and the subsequent Prague, Moscow, and Copenhagen schools of linguistics. As an intellectual movement, structuralism became the heir to existentialism.
The twelve Supreme Grade Swords (最上大業物, Saijō Ō Wazamono?) are the twelve highest-quality blades in the world.
Conqueror's Haki, also known as the Haki of the Supreme King, is the rarest form of Haki that only a few people in the world of One Piece are born with. Unlike the other two Haki types, this one can't be learned through training and is only possessed by those who are born with the spirit of a Conqueror.
After training, the average general surgeon works 50-60 hours per week (not including time available for call). Depending on the practice situation chosen, you can be on call as much as all the time (if in private solo practice) to once a week (if in a large group practice).